**the page is a work in progress
Deleuze believes that the subject is fundamentally unstable. There are a few reasons for this, one of the first being time. Deleuze says that, because the subject is always changing throughout time (e.g. I am not the same person I was 5 minutes ago) time fractures that subject and makes it so that they are always changing—hence being unstable or “fluid.” Another reason why Deleuze thinks that the subject is fluid is because of the infinite amount of momentary interactions subjects have with the world and how each experience changes the subject little by little; this is Deleuze’s affect theory and something that is discussed in greater detail later on.
Because Deleuze thinks that the subject is inherently insatiable, instability follows as a bad thing. There are a few different ways to justify this. One is an impact justified way: stability has been used to justify oppression, i.e. when you definitively say there is something that is, you also invent the concept of what isn’t, which creates in and out groups. Another way to justify this is that stability goes against the fundamental nature of subjects and prevents them from being able to make meaningful relationships with the world i.e. pursue their affect.
Affect is a term central to deleuzian theory (or at least, how it’s read in debate) and means our emotions and experiences.
There are a few different distinctions of types of affect:
Active affect: where you actively seek to repeat certain types of experiences you had in the past to stimulate a certain emotion. E.g. you ride a roller coaster once and experience a thrilling adrenaline rush that you really like and then you continue to go to amusement parks and ride roller coasters in order to experience that feeling again.
Passive affect: where you passively allow something to affect you and do not actively act on it. E.g. you’re sitting on a boat in the middle of a canal and aren’t paddling, rather you let the current move your boat little by little. Passive affect isn’t necessarily bad but active affect is probably better since when you actively choose to pursue certain experiences, you are able to take control of your own relationships with others and with the world.
Reactive affect: when the state reacts to (active) affect by trying to commodify it. When people use active affect, the state reacts in a hostile way because it doesn’t want people to be able to form connections that could overpower it. Reactive affect is often used to overpower and dominate active affect.
Something important to note is that affect itself is a neutral thing. Certain standard texts/ROBs/Frameworks can say things like active affect are more desirable, but affect itself is just a result of change and experiencing.
Lines of Flight
Majoritarian & Minoritarian
Structure of Deleuze Positions in Debate
Deleuze is usually read as a kritik in the 1NC. It usually includes a (few) link(s), which are either topical or "generic state bad"* links, an impact which is usually fascism, and the alternative and role of the ballot (in no particular order).
*State bad links are links of a kritik which can be read on almost any topic where state action is used. These links, as suggested by the name, criticize the use of the state or the way in which the state is used.
Role of the Ballots
- There is a very common card read in Deleuze frameworks in debate, the Deleuze 68 Card. Debaters will often read an independent voter on this card since Deleuze signed a petition to remove age of consent laws in France.